The Importance of Structure
The old expression that says one cannot see the forest for all the trees can be quite applicable to one’s effort to understand Revelation. Before trying to understand all of the specific details within Revelation, one should step back to see the overview of Revelation. This overview perspective is profitable because it allows one to see that the text of Revelation is laid out in a highly structured manner. This structure is intended to provide proper context to the passages within. Thus, understanding the meaning of the structure is actually crucial to understanding Revelation.
We’ll explore this meaning using the principles described in How to Interpret Revelation.
The Structure of Revelation
Revelation is easily the most structured book in the Bible. Its structure is best described by using different levels, with increasing degrees of detail.
The Top Level Structure
At the highest level, the following structure is rather easily seen:
|1||Chapter 1||Preface: The author informs us regarding himself, the purpose of the book and the circumstances in which it came about.|
|2||Chapters 2 thru 3||Messages to the Churches: Christ gives messages to the churches in advance of the end times. They include a mixture of commendations and rebukes, blessings and warnings.|
|3||Chapters 4 thru 22:5||The Main Body of Prophecy.|
|4||Chapter 22:6 to end||Epilogue: The author brings closure with final
admonitions and encouragements.
As you can see, the third part, which I call the Main Body of Prophecy, covers the bulk of Revelation; a bit over 18 of its 22 chapters. This large third part has its own structure, as discussed below.
The Structure of the Main Body of Prophecy
The structure of the main body of prophecy in chapters 4 through 22:5 is also fairly evident:
|1||Chapters 4 thru 8:1||Period #1: The Seals|
|Seal Introduction||Chapters 4 thru 5|
|Seal Events||Chapter 6 and 8:1|
|Seal Interlude||Chapter 7|
|2||Chapters 8:2 thru 11||Period #2: The Trumpets|
|Trumpet Introduction||Chapters 8:2 thru 8:5|
|Trumpet Events||Chapters 8:6 thru 9 and 11:14 thru 11:19|
|Trumpet Interlude||Chapters 10 thru 11:13|
|3||Chapters 12 thru 19||Period #3: The Bowls|
|Bowl Introduction||Chapters 12-15|
|Bowl Events||Chapters 16 and 19|
|Bowl Interlude||Chapters 17 thru 18|
|4||Chapters 20 thru 22:5||Christ Reigns on Earth|
Dominating the Main Body of Prophecy are the first three parts, which I have called “periods“, and these three periods encompass what is commonly called the end times.
As you can see, these three periods themselves share a similar structure, as each period includes an introduction, some events, and an interlude. These are discussed below.
The Structure of Each Period
The three “periods” of Revelation (seal period, trumpet period, and bowl period) have the following characteristics in common:
Each period begins with an “introduction“ – The idea that each period has an introduction may not be obvious in one’s first reading of Revelation, but it’s not hard to recognize this pattern once you have read it through.
What does the introduction do? In each case, the introduction prepares us for understanding the descriptions of the period that follow the introduction. It does so by summarizing what will be accomplished within the period, and revealing God’s motivation for causing that period to happen. The introduction also introduces some terms that will be used later on.
- The introduction to the Seal period is in chapters 4-5.
First, we see God presented as the king in heaven, sitting upon His throne. Then, He produces a seven-sealed scroll, which is handed Christ (the Lamb). Those seals correspond to the seal events that we see in chapter 6.
Terms introduced: throne, 24 elders, seals (of the scroll), the Lamb.
- The introduction to the Trumpet period is in chapter 8:2-5.
This brief introduction depicts a “priestly angel” presiding over a sacrifice on the altar in heaven. The smoke of the sacrifice, representing the prayers of the saints, rises up to God. It concludes with this angel taking fire from the altar and hurling it to the earth. These things symbolize what is happening, from God’s perspective, during the trumpet period, as discussed in The Heavenly Temple.
Terms introduced: the angel who handles fire.
- The introduction to the Bowl period is in chapters 12-15.
This lengthy introduction primarily describes the wickedness that will be on earth before the bowls of God’s wrath are poured upon the earth. As such, it describes many things that are taking place during the trumpet period. However, this introduction concludes with a preview of the bowls in chapter 14, and it prepares the bowls of God’s wrath in chapter 15. This introduction shows that the wickedness justifies the wrath, as discussed in The Introduction to the Bowls.
Terms introduced: dragon, beast, false prophet, seven heads and ten horns, mark of the beast.
Each period consists of seven “events” – The introduction for each period is followed by a series of seven events.
What does the series of seven events do? These event descriptions provide step-by-step details of what will take place during the period. The events are numbered to inform us that each series of events is given in chronological order. There are always seven events, and the number seven itself is also highly significant because it implies wholeness. That is, each period represents the whole of something.
Each period includes an “interlude” – In addition to the introduction and the seven events, the description of each period includes another body of text that I’ve called an interlude.
What does the interlude for each period do? In each case, the interlude discusses the period from a broad perspective. This is necessary because there are some things about each period than pertain to the whole period, and thus cannot be properly described in terms of a single event.
- The interlude for the Seal period is found in chapter 7.
It is embedded between the sixth and seventh seal events.
- The interlude for the Trumpet period is found in chapter 10 through 11:13, .
It is similarly embedded between the sixth and seventh trumpet events.
- The interlude for the Bowl period is found in chapters 17-18.
It is embedded within the text of the seventh bowl event (this claim is explained toward the end of the chapter 16 commentary).
Note that each interlude is embedded within the narration of the seven events of a given period. This tells us that the interlude for a given period should be considered to be part of that period. It is like the bridge section of a song: Even though the bridge section isn’t one of the verses of the song, it’s still as much a part of that song as the verses are.
Understanding the association between a period, its introduction, its events, and its interlude greatly helps the interpretation process. For example, the things that we read about in the trumpet interlude should be regarded only as part of the duration and purpose associated with the trumpet period. This helps us develop a sense for how all the various descriptions in Revelation relate to each other.
Understanding the Structure
We have reviewed the structure of Revelation, but what is the meaning of this structure? In other words, why is Revelation laid out using this structure? Below are some propositions to get us started toward answering this question.
1. The structure must have meaning that is understandable -The prophetic vision of the future is primarily laid out in the form of three periods, (1) seals, (2) trumpets, and (3) bowls. Even before we understand what this structure means, we should at least assume that it’s meaningful. God is not just being whimsical. We should also assume that a proper understanding of the structure is well within our grasp. As such, we should not expect the correct explanation to be excessively complicated.
2. Each period has seven events, giving them the meaning of wholeness – We should assume that the concept of wholeness implied by the number seven is applicable to each period (seals, trumpets, and bowls). This means that each period should not be seen merely as a sequence of seven separate events, but rather as one whole objective that will be completed within those seven events. For example, Genesis begins by describing seven days, but we would be remiss if we failed to notice that those seven days together accomplished the one whole objective of creation. Seeing each period as the accomplishment of one whole objective has a wonderful simplifying effect on our understanding of Revelation.
3. Each period must have a meaning revealed in scripture by the prophets – The above claims that each period must be understandable and represent one whole objective are practically meaningless unless there are in fact three whole objectives already revealed in scripture that need to be fulfilled. If not, then we are merely trying to invent those objectives ourselves, without any defensible and authoritative way to claim what they are, let alone understand what it means for them to be fulfilled.
If the propositions above are correct, we should expect to find three major objectives revealed by the prophets, which have not yet been fulfilled, that could correspond with the three periods of Revelation.
Interestingly, the Old Testament prophets also described the end times in terms of three periods, and those periods each constitute the accomplishment of a major objective revealed in scripture. I’ll refer to them as the three apocalyptic time periods, and they are as follows:
(1) The 70th Week of Daniel.
(2) The Time, Times, and Half a Time.
(3) The Day of the Lord.
Proposing a Hypothesis
Based on the propositions above, we are looking for an explanation for the three periods (seals, trumpets, and bowls) such that they each represent some whole objective unto themselves, and that each objective is revealed in scripture. We should require an explanation is readily understandable, that is free of human “inventiveness”, revealed as directly as possible by scripture.
What could satisfy these requirements more naturally than a simple one-to-one correspondence between the three periods of Revelation and the three apocalyptic time periods revealed by the prophets?
The proposed correspondence is most simply represented as follows:
|Apocalyptic Periods of Prophets||Periods of Revelation|
|1||70 Week of Daniel||Seals|
|2||Time, Times, and Half a Time||Trumpets|
|3||Day of the Lord||Bowls|
This proposal is very attractive because it is so simple and it causes Revelation to follow from the earlier prophecies in such a natural way. It should really be one of the first ideas we consider. Of course, however attractive it appears to be, this proposal has merit only if there is solid scriptural evidence to support it. So for now, let’s just consider this as a hypothesis that needs to be tested. We’ll develop this hypothesis and evaluate it in the sections that follow.
The Three Apocalyptic Time Periods
In order to develop the proposed hypothesis, we should first review the three apocalyptic time periods revealed by the Old Testament prophets and see how they compare with Christ’s own description of His return to earth. After that, we will be prepared to test our hypothesis.
The End Times According to the Prophets
(1) The 70th week of Daniel (7 years)
Dan 9:27 – “And he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering; and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate.”
As explained in The 70th Week of Daniel, this is a period that lasts for seven Biblical years. It begins with a ruler who makes a firm covenant with Israel for seven years, but at the midpoint there will be an abomination in which this ruler stops the sacrifices in the sanctuary, in opposition to God and His people. This event at the midpoint divides it into two 3 1/2 year (or 1260-day) periods.
Please observe: This prophecy includes the decreed destruction of this wicked ruler and his kingdom. This destruction will come from God.
(2) The Time, Times, and Half a Time (1290 days)
Dan 7:25-27 – ‘He will speak out against the Most High and wear down the saints of the Highest One, and he will intend to make alterations in times and in law; and they will be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time. 26But the court will sit for judgment, and his dominion will be taken away, annihilated and destroyed forever. 27‘Then the sovereignty, the dominion and the greatness of all the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the people of the saints of the Highest One; His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all the dominions will serve and obey Him.
Dan 12:7-11 – “7I heard the man dressed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, as he raised his right hand and his left toward heaven, and swore by Him who lives forever that it would be for a time, times, and half a time; and as soon as they finish shattering the power of the holy people, all these events will be completed. 8As for me, I heard but could not understand; so I said, “My lord, what will be the outcome of these events?” 9He said, “Go your way, Daniel, for these words are concealed and sealed up until the end time. 10“Many will be purged, purified and refined, but the wicked will act wickedly; and none of the wicked will understand, but those who have insight will understand. 11“From the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days.”
The title of this time period should be understood as time (1 year), times (2 years) and half a time (1/2 year), which adds up to 3 1/2 years. This title is meant to convey half of seven years.
The Daniel 7 passage shows that this time period will be marked by a wicked ruler who will wear down and conquer the saints and he will speak out against the Most High.
Please observe: This prophecy also (as in the 70th Week prophecy) concludes with this wicked ruler’s kingdom being destroyed forever. It will be replaced by the everlasting kingdom of Christ. This suggests that the time, times, and half a time and the 70th week both conclude with the same event (if both passages refer to the same wicked ruler).
The Daniel 12 passage shows that this period will shatter the power of God’s people. As a result many will be purged, purified, and refined. When the period of shattering and purifying is over, then all of these events will be completed.
Importantly, Daniel 12:11 indicates that this period will begin with the stopping of sacrifices and the abomination of desolation. This immediately connects the beginning of the time, times, and half a time with the midpoint of the 70th Week of Daniel, which is also marked by the stopping of sacrifices and an abomination (Dan 9:27). In other words, the time, times, and half a time period begins at the midpoint of the seven-year 70th Week of Daniel, and both periods end with the same event: the destruction of the wicked ruler. Clearly, these two periods overlap, and the time, times, and half a time period is encompassed by the 70th Week (specifically, the second half of the 70th week).
Somewhat surprisingly, Daniel 12 goes on to say that the length of time following this abomination is 1290 days. This is surprising because 3 1/2 biblical years would most simply be calculated as 1260 days (3.5 x 360), and a 1260-day period is mentioned twice in Revelation (Rev 11:3, Rev 12:6). However, Daniel never mentions a period of 1260 days. Instead, he states that the time period following the midpoint, which is the same period that he calls “a time, times, and half a time”, is 1290 days. This means that this period includes an additional Biblical month (30 days). How can this be explained?
Note that Dan 12:7 says that at the conclusion of the time, times, and half a time period, “all these events will be completed“. But what events are these events? The completion of all these events must include all the things associated with the time, times, and half a time period. Those things are described in Daniel 7, and they can account for 1290 days as follows:
- 1260 days (or 42 months) for the reign of the wicked ruler (Dan 7:25, Rev 13:5).
- 30 days for the destruction of his kingdom and establishing the eternal kingdom (Dan 7:26,27).
Side note: One might not agree with the assertion that the time, times, and half a time extends for 1290 days because Dan 7:25 says that the persecution will last for time, times, and half a time. How then can the time, times, and half a time also include the period afterwards in which the wicked ruler’s kingdom is destroyed?
The answer is that the persecutions against Israel will continue even during the final 30-day destruction period. We know this because that destruction period concludes with the Battle of Armageddon, in which all the nations gather with intent to destroy the remnant of Israel. At that time, Christ shall visibly return to defend Israel. In that battle, God will complete His destruction of the wicked ruler’s kingdom. Thus, Israel will face persecution during the entire 1290-day time, times and half a time, and God shall defend their remnant during that time (Rev 12:14).
What we are seeing is that Daniel has defined a period called time, times, and half a time, and this period constitutes the second half of the seven-year period called the 70th Week of Daniel, up to and including the decreed destruction of the wicked ruler. The wicked ruler is given 42 months (1260 days) to reign (Rev 13:5). However, when those 42 months are over, he doesn’t immediately disappear or go away willingly. Instead there will be an additional period in which his kingdom is taken away by force (Dan 7:26). This additional period lasts for 30 days.
(3) The Day of the Lord (30 days)
There are many passages in scripture that refer to the Day of the Lord. Below is only a sampling.
Isa 13:9-13 – “9Behold the day of the Lord is coming, Cruel, with fury and burning anger, To make the land a desolation; And He will exterminate its sinners from it. 10 For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not flash forth their light; The sun will be dark when it rises And the moon will not shed its light. 11 Thus I will punish the world for its evil And the wicked for their iniquity; I will also put an end to the arrogance of the proud And abase the haughtiness of the ruthless. 12 I will make mortal man scarcer than pure gold And mankind than the gold of Ophir. 13 Therefore I will make the heavens tremble, And the earth will be shaken from its place At the fury of the Lord of hosts In the day of His burning anger.”
Joel 2:10-11 – 10Before them the earth shakes, the heavens tremble, the sun and moon are darkened, and the stars no longer shine. 11The Lord thunders at the head of his army; his forces are beyond number, and mighty is the army that obeys his command. The day of the Lord is great; it is dreadful. Who can endure it?
Joel 3:12-17 – 12Let the nations be aroused And come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat, For there I will sit to judge All the surrounding nations. 13Put in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Come, tread, for the wine press is full; The vats overflow, for their wickedness is great. 14Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision. 15The sun and moon grow dark And the stars lose their brightness. 16The LORD roars from Zion And utters His voice from Jerusalem, And the heavens and the earth tremble. But the LORD is a refuge for His people And a stronghold to the sons of Israel 17Then you will know that I am the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion, My holy mountain. So Jerusalem will be holy, And strangers will pass through it no more.
Clearly, this is the time of God’s wrath. The references to the Lord thundering ahead of his army and roaring from Zion and uttering His voice from Jerusalem tell us that the Day of the Lord also includes the visible return of Christ in wrath. That God will be dwelling in Zion shows that the kingdom of God has come to the earth. Christ shall begin His reign as king on earth.
The idea that this period lasts for 30 days is explained above as the final 30 days of Daniel’s 1290-day period (Dan 12:11), and also near the end of the chapter 19 commentary.
Side note: Some argue that the name “Day of the Lord” implies a single day. However, the word for day (Hebrew “yôm“) is not so rigidly defined. In fact, when used in a prophetic context, it frequently refers to a period of time for which the fulfillment is clearly not limited to a single day (e.g. Deut 31:17-18, Isa 4:2, 11:11, 17:7, Ezek 38:14, Amos 9:11).
One who reviews all of the Day of the Lord references in scripture will see that there are three signs commonly associated with this time period:
(1) Darkness (sun and moon going dark)
(2) Armies of the nations gathering against God and His people Israel.
(3) Shaking of the earth (e.g. an enormous worldwide earthquake).
Note that the purpose of the Day of the Lord is to punish sin. Isa 13:9 calls this time an extermination of sinners. Isa 13:11 says God will put an end to the arrogant and proud. This period would certainly coincide with the decreed destruction of that wicked end times ruler who utters great boasts before God, as described in Daniel 7 (at the conclusion of the Time, Times, and Half a Time) and Daniel 9 (at the conclusion of the 70th Week of Daniel).
Important Observations: While these three apocalyptic time periods have different lengths of time, we observe that they all conclude with the same events: God’s wrath against the wicked, the destruction of the wicked ruler and his kingdom, and the establishment of the eternal kingdom of God on earth. Therefore, all three of these apocalyptic time periods overlap as they approach the end.
The chart below illustrates how the apocalyptic time periods overlap with each other:
The End Times According to Jesus Christ
Christ’s own account of His return in the Olivet discourse (e.g. Matthew 24) easily agrees with the three apocalyptic time periods foretold by the prophets (discussed above).
Matt 24:15-16 – 15“Therefore when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 16then those who are in Judea must flee to the mountains.
Jesus is clearly referring to the abomination mentioned in Daniel 9 (in the middle of the 70th Week) and in Daniel 12. This marks the beginning of the time, times, and half a time period, and it will identify the wicked ruler who causes the abomination to occur. Jesus says that this abomination will be followed by severe persecution from which the people in Judea should flee. After this, Jesus went on to describe the terrible difficulties of the subsequent days (Matt 24:17-20).
Matt 24:21-22 – 21“For then there will be a great tribulation, such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now, nor ever will. 22“Unless those days had been cut short, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.
Jesus identifies this difficult time as a great tribulation, and it is so severe that the elect are nearly all killed. This must correspond to the portion of the time, times and half a time period in which the wicked ruler is wearing out the saints and conquering them, foretold by Daniel (Dan 7:25, Dan 12:1).
In fact, Jesus says that the elect would have been completely killed, except that for their sake, those days will be cut short. This seems to go hand in hand with the view (discussed above) that the time, times and half a time period extends for 1290 days. This 1290-day period (which starts right after the abomination) will begin with 1260 days in which the saints suffer severe persecution by the wicked ruler. Note that they will not suffer for the full 1290 days, because those days are cut short.
Matt 24:29-30 – 29“But immediately after the tribulation of those days THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, AND THE STARS WILL FALL from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30“And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.
Jesus says that the tribulation will be immediately followed by the signs of Christ return. He mentions darkness and shaking, mourning upon the earth, and His visible return in glory. This fits exactly well with the Day of the Lord, as described by the prophets.
Testing the Hypothesis
We’ve seen the three apocalyptic time periods foretold by the prophets, and we’ve seen that they (as expected) agree perfectly with Christ’s own description of His return to earth. Of course, no interpretation of Revelation can be correct unless it also agrees with the prophets and with Christ.
Now it is time to test our hypothesis, which proposes that the three periods of Revelation correspond directly to the three apocalyptic time periods spoken by the prophets.
This hypothesis can be best described using a simple chart. The chart below shows how the three apocalyptic time periods foretold by the prophets should match up with the three periods of Revelation, according to the hypothesis:
Note: Seal #7 is not shown in this chart — it is discussed in the chapter 8 commentary.
From the chart, you can see the basic overlapping aspects of this hypothesis:
- All three periods of Revelation (seals, trumpets, bowls) conclude with the return of Christ in wrath during the Day of the Lord.
- The fifth seal is a summary of the great tribulation, which is the same 1260 days in which the first six trumpet events occur.
- The sixth seal is a summary of the Day of the Lord.
- The seventh trumpet is also a summary of the Day of the Lord.
- The bowls are a more detailed description of the Day of the Lord.
Does this hypothesis have merit?
A Quick Check of the Hypothesis
Let’s start by comparing how each of the respective time periods end:
How Corresponding Periods End
- Compare 70th Week of Daniel with the Seals:
70th Week – Concludes with God’s wrath (Dan 9:27)
Seals – Concludes with God’s wrath (Rev 6:17)
- Compare Time, times and half a time with the Trumpets:
Time, times, and half a time – Concludes with God’s wrath (Dan 7:26)
Trumpets – Concludes with God’s wrath (Rev 11:18)
- Compare Day of the Lord with the Bowls:
Day of the Lord – Encompasses God’s wrath, from start to finish (Isa 13:9)
Bowls – Encompasses God’s wrath, from start to finish (Rev 15:1,7)
Now let’s consider that “midpoint” of the 70th Week of Daniel, which corresponds to the start of the Time, times, and half a time period. This “midpoint” a time of persecution that lasts 3 1/2 years, and ends when God destroys the persecutors.
How Corresponding Periods Relate to Midpoint
- Compare 70th Week of Daniel with the Seals:
70th Week – Persecution begins at midpoint, for 3 1/2 years (Dan 9:27)
Seals – Persecution begins at a midpoint (5th seal), for a little while (Rev 6:11)
- Compare Time, times and half a time with the Trumpets:
Time, times, and half a time – Persecution starts, and lasts for 3 1/2 years (Dan 7:25)
Trumpets – Persecution starts, and lasts for 3 1/2 years (Rev 8:3, 11:2)
- Compare Day of the Lord with the Bowls:
Day of the Lord – God destroys the persecutors (Isa 13:6, 11, Obad 1:15)
Bowls – God destroys the persecutors (Rev 16:19, 19:20,21, 18:20)
Result of quick check: As the comparisons above demonstrate, the proposed hypothesis makes it possible for the three Old Testament periods to match up with the three corresponding periods of Revelation at all of their major points. This itself is rather remarkable, and at a minimum, it shows that the hypothesis has potential. Still, it should be tested much more thoroughly.
Fortunately, there are some stringent tests we can use to further check the validity of proposed hypothesis, because it would be falsified if any of these tests fail. These tests are discussed below.
TEST #1 – Correct Chronology
If the hypotheses is correct, then we should expect Revelation to present the three periods in correct chronological order. Since the three apocalyptic time periods all end at the same time due to overlapping, their chronological order must be determined by when they begin. Thus, our expectation is as follows:
- The 1st period of Revelation (the Seals) should correspond with
the 1st time period to begin (the 70th Week of Daniel).
- The 2nd period of Revelation (the Trumpets) should correspond with
the 2nd period to begin (the Time, times, and half a time).
- The 3rd period of Revelation (the Bowls) should correspond with
the 3rd period to begin (the Day of the Lord).
Result of Test #1: The chronology presented in Revelation obviously agrees with the stated hypothesis, and so this test has been passed successfully.
TEST #2 – Content Agreement
Naturally, the overall content of each period of revelation must be agreeable with the events and descriptions of it’s corresponding apocalyptic time period. This doesn’t mean that every event must be described in both places, but there should be some events which are described in both places, there should be no events that are out of place, and all events must fit the chronology according to the hypothesis.
Specifically, based on the hypothesis chart above, we should see the following:
(1) The Seal events correlate with the 70th Week of Daniel,
(2) The Trumpet events correlate with the Time, times, and half a time, and
(3) The Bowl events correlate with the Day of the Lord.
Testing the content of the Seals vs. the 70th Week: Below, we see a correlation between the seal events and the events of the 70th Week of Daniel:
|70th Week||The Seals|
|Begins with a ruler appearing. He makes a covenant with Israel for seven years.||Begins with “conqueror” appearing in the first seal event, and he is given authority.|
|At the middle of the week, he breaks his
covenant. He commits the abomination and stops the sacrifices, showing his opposition to God’s people.
|In the fifth seal, we see that God’s people are about to face a period of martyrdom.|
|At the end of the week, this wicked ruler and his worldwide kingdom is destroyed.||In the sixth seal, the wicked people on earth face the day of God’s wrath.|
Testing the content of the Trumpets vs. the Time, times, and half a time: Below, we see a correlation between the trumpets and the description of the time, times, and half a time:
|Time, times, and half a time||The Trumpets|
|This includes a 3 1/2 year period where God’s people (including Israel) is under attack and saints are murdered.||In the context of the trumpets we see that Israel being attacked for 3 1/2 years (the 42 months of Rev 11:2), that attempts will be made to kill their two leaders, with the wicked ruler eventually succeeding (Rev 11:7). Also, the people of earth will be unrepentant about their murders (Rev 9:21).|
|This period is called “time, times, and half a time“.||The wicked ruler mentioned in the context of the trumpets (the beast of Rev 11:7) is described in more detail in chapters 12 and 13. We see that he shall reign for 42 months while he conquers the saints (Rev 13:5,7). During that same time, Israel will be attacked, but they will be defended by God for the period of time called “time, times, and half a time” (Rev 12:14). It appears that the angel we see in the trumpets (Rev 10:5-6) is the same (or similar) angel we saw declaring “time, times, and half a time” in Daniel 12:7.|
|At the end of this time, the wicked ruler’s kingdom is destroyed and the kingdom of God will reign on earth.||In the context of the trumpets, an angel declares that all things spoken by the prophets will be completed in the seventh trumpet (Rev 10:7). In the seventh trumpet, the wrath of God comes against the enraged nations, the kingdom of God comes to earth, and Christ begins to reign (Rev 11:15-18).|
Testing the content of the Bowls vs. the Day of the Lord: Below, we see a correlation between the bowls and the Day of the Lord:
|Day of the Lord||The Bowls|
|This will be the time of God’s wrath.||The bowls are introduced as being the wrath of God (Rev 15:7, Rev 16:1).|
|The sun and moon go dark.||The fifth bowl describes darkness.|
|Nations are aroused to come against Israel.||The sixth bowl describes the gathering of an army at Armageddon (in Israel).|
|The earth will be violently shaken.||The seventh bowl describes an earthquake unlike any other, which causes all mountains and islands to be destroyed.|
|The nations will be shattered.||The bowls conclude with Christ appearing with a rod of iron (Rev 19:15), alluding to His shattering of nations in Psalm 2:9. He will tread the wine press of God’s wrath, alluding to God’s wrath in Isa 63:2-3.|
|Christ begins his reign as king upon the earth.||Christ returns to earth bearing the title King of Kings and Lord of Lords (Rev 19:16). The bowls are followed by Christ’s reign in the millennial kingdom.|
Result of Test #2: Based on the correlations above, we can say that this test has been passed successfully.
TEST #3 – Overlapping with Time Periods
If our hypothesis is correct, then we should expect to see that the periods of Revelation overlap the apocalyptic time periods in the same manner that the apocalyptic periods overlap themselves.
Specifically, based on the hypothesis chart above, we should see the following:
(1) The Seals encompass the time, times, and half a time,
(2) The Seals encompass the Day of the Lord, and
(3) The Trumpets encompass the Day of the Lord.
Testing for overlap between Seals and the Time, times, and half a time: Do we see anything within the Seals that could be encompassing the Time, times, and half a time? Yes:
- The fifth seal tells us that there will be a little while longer in which the number of martyred saints must be completed: “…they should rest for a little while longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brethren who were to be killed even as they had been, would be completed also.” (Rev 6:11).
- The time, times, and half a time is when the saints are being persecuted nearly to death (Dan 7:25).
Therefore, the martyrdom described by the fifth seal may be seen as a summary of the time, times, and half a time, hence the seals encompass the time, times and half a time.
Testing for overlap between Seals and the Day of the Lord: Do we see anything within the Seals that could be encompassing the Day of the Lord? Yes:
- The sixth seal describes many of the things associated with the Day of the Lord:
“12I looked when He broke the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became like blood; 13and the stars of the sky fell to the earth, as a fig tree casts its unripe figs when shaken by a great wind. 14The sky was split apart like a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. 15Then the kings of the earth and the great men and the commanders and the rich and the strong and every slave and free man hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains; 16and they said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; 17for the great day of their wrath has come, and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:12-17).
- The Day of the Lord is the time when we see things like darkness, armies, the great earthquake, and the return of Christ in wrath.
Therefore, the apocalyptic events described by the sixth seal may be seen as a summary of the Day of the Lord, hence the seals encompass the Day of the Lord.
Testing for overlap between the Trumpets and the Day of the Lord: Do we see anything within the Trumpets that could be encompassing the the Day of the Lord? Yes:
- The seventh trumpet describes things associated with the Day of the Lord:
“15Then the seventh angel sounded; and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever.” 16And the twenty-four elders, who sit on their thrones before God, fell on their faces and worshiped God, 17saying, “We give You thanks, O Lord God, the Almighty, who are and who were, because You have taken Your great power and have begun to reign. 18“And the nations were enraged, and Your wrath came, and the time came for the dead to be judged, and the time to reward Your bond-servants the prophets and the saints and those who fear Your name, the small and the great, and to destroy those who destroy the earth.” (Rev 11:15-18).
- The Day of the Lord is the time of God’s wrath against the nations, and the beginning of Christ’s reign as the kingdom of God has come to earth.
Therefore, the wrath and reign of Christ described by the seventh trumpet may be seen as a summary of the Day of the Lord, hence the trumpets encompass the Day of the Lord.
Result of Test #3: This evidence of correct overlapping between all periods, as shown above, confirms that this test has been passed successfully.
TEST #4 – Overlapping within Revelation
This test is similar to the previous test, except now we are looking for overlap within Revelation itself. The events and descriptions in Revelation may include some details that were not revealed by the Old Testament prophets.
If our hypothesis is correct, we should expect to see some cases in which a single-occurrence event is described multiple times across different contexts due to the overlapping time periods proposed by the hypothesis.
Example: To illustrate this point, consider the the four gospel books (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John). Each book describes a several events that took place in Israel over a certain time period.
I will propose that time periods associated with the gospel books overlap. If I am correct, then we should expect to find some events that are described multiple times across those books.
Indeed, we can find many such events (e.g. the baptism of Jesus, Jesus calling his disciples, the last supper, the crucifixion, etc.).
Although these events are described multiple times, those descriptions appear in different contexts (i.e. different gospels). Also, we see agreement in order of those events between the gospels (e.g. first the baptism of Jesus, then the calling the the disciples, then the transfiguration, then the last supper, and lastly the crucifixion). This means that those events can be understood to be in chronological alignment.
Based on this observed alignment, we have good reason to believe that these are single-occurrence events, and that they are described multiple times only because their separate contexts (i.e., the gospels) overlap chronologically. This gives confirmation to the proposal that I stated at the start of this example.
In Revelation we can see several events that seem to share similar descriptions. We will test to see if they may actually be single-occurrence events being described multiple times in different contexts due to overlapping. In order to do this, we must show that all the descriptions of each event can be shown to align chronologically, in accordance with the overlapping contexts proposed by our hypothesis.
The table below shows several cases where multiple similar descriptions of events are found in Revelation. For reference, I’ve tagged each case with a label (e.g. “P1” for the first description of persecution, “P2” for the second, and so on).
|Scripture Reference||Context according|
|Persection of Saints||Saints are described as being persecuted and martyred|
|P1||Rev 6:11||Great tribulation||6th Seal|
a time for the number of
saints to be killed is completed
|P2||Rev 9:21||Great tribulation||6th Trumpet|
|P3||Rev 11:3,5,7||Great tribulation||Trumpet Interlude|
efforts to kill Israel's two
witnesses during of tribulation
|P4||Rev 12:13-17||Great tribulation||Bowl Introduction|
efforts to destroy Israel and
|P5||Rev 13:5,7||Great tribulation||Bowl Introduction|
persecution of saints
for 42 months.
|Saints in Heaven||Saints are in heaven, with 24 elders, around the|
throne praising God victoriously
|H1||Rev 7:9-14||After tribulation||Seal Interlude|
multitude in heaven, coming
out of the great tribulation
|H2||Rev 11:15||After tribulation||7th Trumpet|
tribulation is over, and
wrath is about to begin
|H3||Rev 15:2-4||After tribulation||Bowl Introduction|
victorious saints testifying
to God's righteousness
|H3||Rev 19:1-5||After tribulation||7th Bowl|
well into wrath, just before
visible return of Christ
|Darkness||The sun and the moon are darkened|
|D1||Rev 6:12||During wrath||6th Seal|
sun becomes black and
moon becomes like blood
|D2||Rev 16:10||During wrath||5th Bowl|
the kingdom of the best
|Earthquake||a great worldwide quake causes mountains and islands|
to be moved from their places
|E1||Rev 6:12,14||During wrath||6th Seal|
earthquake moves every
mountain and island from place
|E2||Rev 16:18,19,20||During wrath||7th Bowl|
unique quake destroys all
cities; mountains and islands vanish
|Return of Christ in Wrath||The visible return of Christ in glory and wrath,|
as king of kings to shatter nations
|R1||Rev 6:16,17||End of wrath||6th Seal|
the great day of their wrath has
come; who is able to stand?
|R2||Rev 11:15,18||End of wrath||7th Trumpet|
Christ reigns; the nations
were enraged, and wrath came
|R3||Rev 14:19||End of wrath||Bowl Introduction|
wine press of God's wrath;
blood for two hundred miles
|R4||Rev 17:14||End of wrath||Bowl Interlude|
Nations wage war on Christ;
Christ as king overcomes them
|R5||Rev 19:11,15,16||End of wrath||7th Bowl (resumed)|
Christ as king executes wrath;
shatters nations with rod of iron
|Groups Facing Wrath||People who will face Christ's wrath. These|
groups specifically include kings, commanders,
great or mighty men, and then every man,
both free men and slaves
|G1||Rev 6:15||End of wrath||6th Seal|
people try in vain to flee
facing God's wrath
|G2||Rev 19:18||End of wrath||7th Bowl|
groups are slaughtered, and
bodies left as food for birds
|Judgment of the Dead||The dead are judged, both the righteous|
and the unrighteous
|J1||Rev 11:18||After wrath||7th Trumpet|
time to judge the dead, reward
righteous; destroy unrighteous
|J2||Rev 20:4,5,12||After wrath||Reign of Christ|
righteous dead blessed;
unrighteous dead punished
Result of Test #4: The hypotheses causes the all of the descriptions of these events to agree chronologically (indicated by green context). This means that our hypotheses makes it possible for each of these multiply-described events to fall neatly into chronological alignment. Hence, they are actually single-occurrence events that have been described multiple times in different overlapping contexts. Thus, our hypothesis has passed this test.
Conclusion of Tests and the Overlapping Model
The proposed hypothesis has passed each of the tests above. Without attempting to calculate any probabilities, I’ll just state that the chances of that happening would be extremely unlikely if the hypothesis is wrong.
Passing these tests gives a sense of confirmation to our hypothesis, and so there is justification in using this hypothesis as a basis for interpreting Revelation. The approach to interpreting Revelation this way should be given a name. Since the most distinguishing feature of this theory is that the periods overlap, I’ll call this approach the Overlapping Model.
The Overlapping Model vs. Non-Overlapping Models
For the reasons given above, the view presented in this website operates on the theory that the three periods (seals, trumpets, and bowls) each represent a specific apocalyptic time period foretold by the prophets. As such, they start at different times, but they overlap as they approach the final wrath of God and visible return of Christ. I’ve called this view the Overlapping Model.
However, most of the commentaries on Revelation seem to take a different approach. Either they don’t see any overlapping at all, or they things overlapping some other way. For the sake of discussion, I’ll refer to the differing views generally as Non-Overlapping Models.
Since the view I am presenting appears to be in the minority (although there really is no single view accepted by the majority), I feel obligated to provide some reasons for why I believe this Overlapping Model is to be preferred.
All Apparent Redundancies Resolved
One who reads straight through Revelation will observe several apparent redundancies. These apparent redundancies are detailed in “TEST #4” above, where it seems that at least seven different events are each described multiple times. I labeled each of those descriptions as follows:
|P||Persecution of Saints||5 – P1, P2, P3, P4, P5|
|H||Saints in Heaven||4 – H1, H2, H3, H4|
|D||Darkness||2 – D1, D2|
|E||Earthquake||2 – E1, E2|
|R||Return of Christ in Wrath||5 – R1, R2, R3, R4, R5|
|G||Groups of people facing wrath||2 – G1, G2|
|J||Judgment of dead||2 – J1, J2|
These apparently redundant events appear within the 22 chapters of Revelation as follows:
As the diagram above shows, the multiple descriptions for each event are well-scattered across the chapters. This is one of the main reasons that Revelation is perceived as such a difficult book to understand. A straight-through reading of Revelation seems to be arbitrarily hopping back and forth between various times of persecution, darkness, celebrations in heaven, wrath, earthquakes, judging the dead, and wrath. These apparently redundant events make it very difficult to grasp any sense about the timing of all these things.
However, the view is quite different and illuminating when these apparently redundant events are placed into the context of the Overlapping Model, as shown below:
As the chart demonstrates, the Overlapping Model makes it possible to see all of the apparently redundant events fall neatly into chronological alignment! This alignment means that each of these apparently redundant events each occur only once. There are actually no redundancies at all.
This by itself is a remarkable consequence of the Overlapping Model, and (if accepted) it greatly simplifies our understanding of what will happen in the end times. It also simplifies our overall understanding about how all the parts of Revelation fit together.
By way of analogy, consider how current events are typically reported in printed news articles.
- First, the headline provides a terse statement of what happened.
- Then the lead paragraph will provide a summary of the story.
- Finally, the article body will explain what happened in greater detail.
Naturally, the headline, the lead paragraph, and the article body will, to some extent, say the same thing. It would be a huge mistake for the reader to think that the repetition between these different parts are reporting separate but similar events! It would also be a mistake to see this repetition as merely redundant (i.e. unnecessary).
The same idea applies to the way we read Revelation. What appears to be a repeated event is simply the same event being described in different contexts and with different levels of detail, and it would be a mistake to not recognize this structure. The Overlapping Model recognizes that Revelation is structured using different contexts with varying levels of detail. Revelation has this structure simply because it correlates with the Old Testament end-times prophecies, and those prophecies are also structured using different overlapping contexts with varying levels of detail. Revelation should thus be interpreted accordingly.
Specific Redundancy Issues
Commentaries based on Non-Overlapping models generally suppose that the end times will feature two occasions in which the world goes dark, and two great world-wide earthquakes which cause all the mountains and islands to move. The idea that these events come in pairs come from the passages below:
- First Period of Darkness (sixth seal): and the sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became like blood.
- Second Period of Darkness (fifth bowl): the fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom became darkened
- First Worldwide Quake (sixth seal): there was a great earthquake; … and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
- Second Worldwide Quake (seventh bowl): there was a great earthquake, such as there had not been since man came to be upon the earth, so great an earthquake was it, and so mighty. … And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.
This is a problem because there are other places in the Bible where these darkness and earthquake events are described, and they mention only one period of darkness and one worldwide earthquake. This includes the writings of multiple Old Testament prophets (e.g. Isa 2:19, Isa 13:10, Isa 24:19-21, Joel 2:10, Hag 2:6-7) as well as Christ’s own description of his return (Matt 24:29-30).
However, if we use the Overlapping Model, we accept that the sixth seal is a summary of the bowls. Since the first description of these two events appear in the sixth seal, it is only natural to see them described again when the bowls are described in detail. Thus, both of these events occur just once, which puts them in exact agreement with the prophets and with Christ.
More Problems with Two Worldwide Earthquakes:
Having two vast worldwide earthquakes is particularly troublesome. Commentators who support a Non-Overlapping Model propose that the first earthquake (the one described in the sixth seal) is a “lesser” earthquake. This claim is pinned on a modest difference in wording between the two earthquake references. Specifically, in the sixth seal it says “every mountain and island were moved out of their places”, while in the seventh bowl it says “every island fled away, and the mountains were not found”.
But does this wording difference really demand two great earthquakes? No. If every island fled away and every mountain could not be found, is it safe to also say they were moved out of their places. The second account can easily be seen as a somewhat more finalized version of the first account. On the contrary, if the author really did intend for us to understand these as two different earthquakes, why would he go out of his way to make the two accounts sound so similar?
Side note: Some have argued that the earthquake mentioned in the sixth seal cannot be the same as the one in the seventh bowl because (1) the seventh bowl says “the mountains were not found” and (2) the sixth seal says that men “hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains“. They reason that because there were mountains present to hide in during the sixth seal, it cannot be the seventh bowl in which all mountains disappear.
But this argument is based on unnecessary constraints. All we know is that there were mountains when the earthquake began, but by the time the earthquake was over, the mountains could not be found. We have no idea how long the earthquake will last or how long it will take for the mountains to disappear, and there is certainly no reason to think that they all just vanished at as soon as the earthquake began, leaving men with no place to hide.
But more importantly, we should not interpret scripture in such a wooden manner. Obviously, there will be relatively few people with quick access to the rocks and caves of mountains when the wrath of the Lamb strikes the earth. This statement about hiding in the mountains is just an expression that illustrates the terror of those who face the visible return of Christ in wrath. They will experience that terror whether or not they actually have a mountain nearby! Don’t let this little illustration be a governing factor in your overall understanding or Revelation.
In any case, there is no argument that prevents the seventh bowl earthquake from being the same earthquake described by the sixth seal.
Another problem with the two-earthquake view is the supposition that it is even possible to have a “lesser” worldwide earthquake that, on one hand causes all mountains and islands to be moved from their places, and yet on the other hand it allows for life to continue on somewhat normally for a few years afterwards! This idea is geologically untenable. An earthquake that moves an island even a few feet causes catastrophic devastation in that region. If an earthquake were to cause all mountains and islands to be moved from their places, it would be an unimaginable global catastrophe from which there would be no short-term recovery.
It is much more reasonable to believe that an earthquake of that magnitude could only occur once, and it must occur near the end, because the world as we know it will be destroyed. This more reasonable belief agrees exactly with the single earthquake that prophets described, and it is supported by Revelation if we use the Overlapping Model.
Side Note: Some interpreters take an altogether different view whereby they see the mountains and islands symbolically representing kingdoms and nations. It is true that the Bible sometimes uses mountains to refer figuratively to kingdoms (islands is questionable). However, the reference in Revelation 6 mentions the “rocks of the mountains” and the reference in Revelation 16 says that “the cities of the nations fell“. This strongly indicates that it’s most appropriate to interpret literally — that is, these are literal mountains and islands that are moving as a result of an actual earthquake.
The Meaning of the Sixth Seal Terror
The sixth seal describes a time when the people of earth are in such a state of terror that they will actually hope to be crushed by falling rocks rather than face the presence of God and the Lamb (Rev 6:16), because the great day of their wrath has come (Rev 6:17). What could this time of terror mean? The answer depends on which model you choose.
- If you choose a Non-Overlapping Model, then the sixth seal event occurs long (i.e. years) before the visible return of Christ in wrath. The people who cried out to be crushed by rocks will apparently recover from the terror they had experienced. They will return to the business of buying and selling and worshiping Antichrist, as described later in Revelation.
- If you choose the Overlapping Model, then the sixth seal event is describing the reactions of people at the visible return of Christ in wrath. These people of Rev 6:15-16 will not recover from the day of God’s wrath, but instead they will be quickly killed by it (Rev 19:18-21).
Which makes more sense? Does it make sense for life to resume normally following the terrifying day of God’s wrath described of the sixth seal? I think not. The terrors experienced by people in the sixth seal correspond to their destruction at the conclusion of the end times.
The Meaning of the Scroll Given to the Lamb
In Chapter 5, Jesus (depicted as the Lamb) is given a seven-sealed scroll. He is not given any trumpets or bowls, just the scroll. What then could this scroll represent? The answer comes from observing what is accomplished as the seven seals of that scroll are opened. However, what the seals accomplish varies depending on which model you choose.
- If you choose a Non-Overlapping Model, then the seals end with the supposed “first and lesser” worldwide earthquake mentioned in the sixth seal (Rev 6:12). However, that earthquake occurs at some intermediate time long before Christ’s return. Thus, the seven-sealed scroll represents only a portion of the end times, but not the final things such as the “second and greater” quake (Rev 16:18), nor even the return of Christ.
- If you choose the Overlapping Model, then the seals cover the entire end times period from start to finish including the trumpets and bowls (which are overlapped by the seals). It concludes with the wrath of God, the one great earthquake, and Christ’s return as king. Thus, the seven-sealed scroll represents the complete fulfillment of the Great Promise of the kingdom of God on earth.
Which makes more sense? Does it make sense for Christ to be given a scroll that represents only a portion of the total time and purpose of the end times? I think not. That scroll must represent the completion of that purpose from start to finish. This means that the Overlapping Model makes the most sense. This view is also much more defensible when one considers the context surrounding that seven-sealed scroll (as explained in the chapter 5 commentary).
Based on all of the above, I believe that the Overlapping Model provides the most reasonable and scripturally defensible understanding of the structure of Revelation. It causes many things to fall neatly into place, which gives a sense of confirmation for this model.
Perhaps most importantly, the Overlapping model is direct and natural.
- By direct, I mean that it doesn’t require much human inventiveness or cleverness.
- By natural, I mean that it flows from the rest of the Bible in an expected way. Revelation was clearly written with the intention that the reader should already be familiar with what the prophets wrote. Anyone familiar with what the prophets wrote should approach Revelation expecting that the major themes of Revelation will correlate with the major themes of the prophets. This is exactly how the Overlapping Model works!
Therefore, I have used the Overlapping Model as the foundation for interpreting Revelation. Having now gone through the entire book thoroughly enough to write a commentary, I have not seen any reason to doubt it. On the contrary, I have found that it has only gained confirmation. Perhaps you will also find that this model provides an understanding of Revelation that is more coherent and less complicated than any understanding you may have had before. I have attempted to present this understanding in the commentary pages and other articles on this site.